Flat white is an Australian invention developed in 1980s. It uses microfoamed milk often poured into a shape at the top. It is now being sold in Starbuck franchises in the UK.
Cappucino is a coffee topped with foamed milk and sprinkled with chocolate or cinnamon. The term comes form the Italian word meaning hood (small cap). It was first described in Italy in the 1930s and has become popular with the advent of espresso machines.
A short black is a small (30ml) shot of espresso coffee. The froth at the top is called crema and is created by forcing the hot water through the ground coffee under pressure. Short black is the Australian term, in most countries it is call espresso.
Latte is an espresso and steamed milk named after the Italian caffe latte meaning milk coffee. This type of coffee has been served in Europe for 400 years.
Irish coffee is a cocktail of hot coffee, Irish whisky and sugar (often brown sugar). It was originaly developed by Joe Sheriden, head chef at Foynes in County Limerick in 1940s.
Turkish coffee involves boiling roasted and finely ground coffee in a pot and served straight into a cup where the grounds are allowed to settle. The earliest evidence of this coffee comes from Yemen in the 15th century. The word coffee actually comes from the Arabic word qahwah. The importance of coffee in Turkish culture is best shown by the Turkish word for breakfast (kahvalti) which literally means before coffee.